Off-grid solar system
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The easiest way to make a off grid solar system

Off grid solar power systems work in the same way as other power source supply power to home appliance, but they use the sun’s energy as their power source, which is green and renewable.

What is a off grid solar power system consists of?

An off grid solar power system consists of:
Solar panels
PV combiner
Solar charge controller (PWM or MPPT)
Battery (Gel or lithium battery)
Off-grid inverter
Cable and accessory
Solar panel bracket according to different roof or ground
Off Grid Solar Power System

How to size the off-grid solar system?

Inverter power

50kw off grid solar system
The first thing is to calculate the inverter power. To see how big the inverter and what is the DC voltage for the system.

To determine the inverter size we must find the maximum wattage of your home.
You can found this by adding up all your home appliances that would run at the same time.

Example: A room has three 60 watt lights and a 300w TV. The inverter size is 60 x 3 + 300 = 480 watts

And we should use at least a 500w inverter to run the appliances or 1kw would be better. Never full use the power of the inverter, because if you use full load all the time, the inverter life span would be reduce.

For the home appliances like air conditioner, the working power would be 4-6time than rate power, the inverter power should be consider bigger.
Like a 750w air conditioner, the working power would be 3kw-5kw. You should use a 5kw inverter to handle the air conditioner.

And also for the pump, the start power may reach 4times, so if your house have pumps or air conditioners, the inverter power should be bigger.

Solar panel power

50kw off grid solar system-solar panel
There are 2way can size your solar panel power.

First way is to see your electricity bill, if you use 900kwh per month. Then each day is about 30Kwh. How many solar panel can generate 30kwh in one day?
Usually we use 6 hour for efficient sun hour. And solar power can not 100% use, we consider 0.7 factor as the efficiency.
Here is how to calculate the solar panel power
So you will need 7kw solar panel to cover 900kwh per month if you not consider the rainy and cloudy day.

And the other way is to estimate by yourself.
Example: A room has three 60 watt lights and a 300w TV. Lights working hours is 12hours, and 9hours for the TV. Then the total usage would be
Here is how to calculate the solar panel power
So you will need 814w solar panel to cover the total usage if you not consider the rainy and cloudy day.

Battery bank capacity

Finally we can size the battery bank capacity.
Example, there is one 500w machine working 24 hours, then we can divide the 24hours into 6 hours in day time+18 hours at night.
The battery bank is for night use. Then the total usage at night would be:
500w x 18hrs= 9000wh
If we use 50% DOD for the battery, and the inverter voltage is 96V.
Then the battery bank should be
9000wh÷50%DOD÷96V= 187Ah<200Ah
Because for the gel battery, common DC voltage is 12V.
So in for the 96V system, it will require
96V ÷12V = 8pcs
And the common gel battery capacity is 100Ah, 150Ah, 200Ah, 250Ah.
Then we will need 8pcs 200Ah gel battery for running 500w machine work 18hours at night.

Solar panel bracket

Solar panel bracket according to your need.

How much does an off grid solar power system cost?

The cost of an off grid solar power system can vary widely depending on the battery number and the solar panel number.

In general, the larger the system and especially the larger the solar PV panel and more battery, the larger the price tag.

When considering the true cost of an off grid solar power system, it can be helpful to compare same power inverter and same battery number and solar panel number.

For example, one 5kw off grid solar power system, the price would be quite different from one with 4pcs battery and the one with 8pcs battery.
Off Grid Solar Power System

The history of off grid solar power system

From all the time, people trying to use the sun power as resource.
The first recorded is solar pump system, which were developed in the 19th century.

These first pump was used sun heated water to create steam, and use the steam to drive the steam engines. This was as a result of technology to convert solar energy into other energy forms.

These steam engines powered water pumps, trains, textile machines, and began the machine revolution.

In the 1960s, the solar panels were very inefficient, because the materials is hard to process and rare. It made the solar panel cost very high, like around $1000 per watt. This is like a impossible price for civil.

Luckily, the prices of photovoltaic (PV) panels have dropped a lot, because the price of silicon, the key material has also dropped substantially.
This makes the solar power system common in recent year. And the technology continues to improve, you can see more and more roof are placed by smaller, cheaper solar panels. No longer as only rich people can use the solar power system.

As solar panels become cheaper and battery technology become mature. The solar power can be storage in the battery. They are ideal for the power source for remote locations where power lines cannot reach, do not require expensive and polluting fuel, and renewable.

Off grid solar power system are already used in:
Hospital in rural area

Types of off grid solar power system

Single phase off grid solar power system

Single phase solar system are typically used in most houses and small businesses, using wires: active and neutral
L+N=110V/120V/220V/230V/240V AC
And look at your home appliance, most of them like fans, lights, TV, computer, all are single phase.
what is single phase power

Three phase off grid solar power system

Three-phase power has five wires, three of which are active, one neutral wire and one earthed at the switchboard.

An off-grid three-phase inverter converts the DC input from battery into three-phase AC output.

Each phase 1/3 equal the total power, like a 30KW inverter, each phase would be 10KW. And the maximum output for each phase would be I=P/=10KW/220V=45A.

It can be seen in larger homes and factory, and some farm three phase pump. As the appliance maybe three phase for pump or motors or large air conditioners.
three phase

Split phase off grid solar power system

In South American homes, the power would be split phase power.
Both 240V and 120V appliances is exist in same home.

For the air conditioners, ovens, dryers, the voltage would be 240V high-power loads.
And lights, fans, computers small appliances use 120V.

Some people call it dual phase. This is consists of an Alternating Current (AC) with two wires.A phase A and a phase B, which are out of phase by 180 degrees.
L1+L2=240V, and L1+N=120V, L2+N=120V
Choosing between different types of solar power system is not difficult, you can choose according to your appliances.

Off grid solar power system VS Diesel generator

It can be surprising how much a diesel generator cost for 10years
once you add everything up.

For example, the true cost of a diesel generator can be much greater when you consider:
Transport costs of travelling to collect fuel
Servicing and maintenance
How often your generator needs replacing

Solar energy is free and renewable
Reduced transport costs – An off grid solar power system works by placing the solar panel under the sun – there is no need to collect fuel which will save you both time and money.

Savings on maintenance costs – solar panel no need maintenance, just clean them twice a year or more often. This maintenance costs nearly 0 compare to diesel generator.
100KW solar array diesel

How can you maintain your off grid solar power system?

Solar panel need to be cleaned twice a year or more, to make sure the surface no dirt or shit.
It really easy maintain and the solar panel life span can reach more than 25years.
And for the battery, check here to see how to maintain it.

So before you buy an off grid solar power system, make sure you know:

How it works
How it can be maintained
How to repair a inverter
What level of after-sales support is offered

You can check here to see the warranty condition.

How to places the solar panel?

off grid solar power system are widely use in a place no city grid or city grid fail often.

off grid solar power system are suitable for different place like home, resort, hotel, and hospital. You should be able to find a solar power system that after reading from our website.

Solar panel can be put on the roof or on the ground, and for some place, solar panel can be designed as a part of the building, which we call it BIPV.

For solar panel, we usually common seen below place:

  • Tile roof solar mounting system
  • Metal roof solar mounting
  • Ground solar mounting system for 2 rows type
  • Triangle mounting system
  • Ballasted mounting system
  • Asphalt shingle roof solar mounting system
  • Ground Screw structure
  • Solar carport

If you try to make the solar panel generate power full achieve cost savings,  It's better to put some time aside and carefully analyze and determine the right location for your solar panels. The best place to install solar panel depends on the position and the sun direction.

If you are living on the equator , better to place the solar panel on the ground directly. As a horizontal panel at 90 degrees would have the sun directly above at all times.

And the solar panel should be away from tree or other shade, to make sure the solar panel enjoy all day sunshine.


How to install your off grid solar power system?

We have installation manual to support you in the installation.
And electrical diagram for your engineer better understanding the off grid solar power system.

Click here to know how to install solar power system for home.

100kw solar system connection drawing

Tips & tricks

  1. Solar panel power- do you know how to read the solar panel data sheet?

     2. Do you know the difference between MPPT and PWM solar charge controller?

     3.Inverter power- Do you know how to read the inverter data sheet?

     4.Battery bank what you should be aware.

     5.Installation for the system how to install solar power system for home.

If you have any questions or off grid solar power system tips to share, please get in touch at

Bob Jiang
Bob is one of  the creators of InkPV. He uses experience in marketing and knowledge from her master's in climate communications to research and review the solar and wind industry.

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